Qurbani and Sadaka - Sacrifice
The Qurbani sacrifice, as practised by Holy Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh) is an essential religious rite in memory of the sacrifice performed by Prophet Abraham. God put Abraham to a most difficult trial, the details of which are described in the Quran:
‘O my Lord! Grant me (Abraham) a righteous (son)!’ So We gave him the good news of a boy ready to suffer and forbear, then, when the son reached the age to work with him, he said: ‘O my son I see in a vision that I offer you in sacrifice, now say what is your view!’ (The son) said: ‘O My father! Do as you are commanded: You will find me if God so wills, one practising patience and constancy!’ So when they had both submitted their wills (to God), and he had made him prostrate on his face (for sacrifice), We called out to him: ‘O Abraham! You have already fulfilled the vision!’ Thus indeed do we reward those who do right‘, For this was obviously a trial and We ransomed him with a momentous sacrifice: and We left (this blessing) for him among generations (to come) in later times: (37:100-109).
This is the origin of the Islamic precept of sacrifice in fulfillment of God’s command provided in the Quran:
‘... to your Lord turn in prayer and sacrifice.’
The aim of sacrifice, like all other fundamentals of Islam, is to imbibe piety and self righteousness. It also promotes the spirit of sacrifice for a right cause. To explain its purpose, God says in the Quran:
‘It is not their meat, nor their blood, that reaches God, It is their piety that reaches God’
Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh) said: ‘On the 10th of Zil-Hijjah, there is no better act in the view of Allah than shedding the blood (of slaughtered animals). And verily sacrifice earns the approbation of Allah even before the drop of blood (of the slaughtered animal) falls on the ground. Hence you should offer it in good spirit. For every hair of the sacrificial animal, there is a blessing.’ Here are the precepts and practices pertaining to Qurbani, according to Hanafi Fiqh.
Qurbani, like Zakat, is essential for one who has the financial means and savings that remain surplus to his own needs over the year. It is essential for one’s own self. However, a slaughter of animal can also be offered for each member of one’s family. It may be offered, though it is not essential, for one’s deceased relations, too, in the hope of benediction and blessings for the departed souls.
What to Sacrifice
All the permissible (halal) domesticated or reared quadrupeds can be offered for Qurbani. Generally, slaughter of goats, sheep, rams, cows, and camels is offered. It is permissible for seven persons to share the sacrifice of a cow or a camel on the condition that no one’s share is less than one seventh and their intention is to offer Qurbani.
Age of Sacrificial Animals:
Sacrifice of goat or sheep less than one year old (unless the sheep is so strong and fat that it looks to be a full one year old) is not in order. Cow should be at least two years old. Camels should not be less than five years old.
Disqualifying defects
Sacrifice of an animal will not be in order if it is one eyed, or blind, or has lost one third or more of its eyesight, or one third or more of its tail, or its ear has been cut off, or it is lame, or its bones have no marrow, or it has no ears by birth or its horns have been broken from their roots, or it has no teeth at all. If the number of teeth intact exceeds the lost ones, it is permissible. If it has no horns by birth, or has less than one third broken horns, it is permissible.
Distribution of meat
One should eat the meat of the sacrifice, give it to relations and friends, (to non-Muslims also) and also to the poor in charity. One third should be given in charity, but if it be less it will not be a sin.
Injunctions on the use of skin
It is not permissible to give a portion of meat or the skin of the slaughtered animal as wages. They should instead be given to the needy in charity. Even the rope and cover of the sacrificed animal should be given away as charity.
It is commendable that one who intends to offer a sacrifice should refrain from having a hair cut, a shave, and pruning of nails, from the 1st of Zil-Hijjah (up to the time he has performed the sacrifice).
Intention in the first instance, one who proposes to offer sacrifice must make an intention to that effect.
Sadaka is a voluntary act of giving alms 'fi sabillilah' (for the cause of Allah), by Muslims who want to contribute more than their obligatory zakah payment. Sadaka may be given to mark or bring blessings to occasions such as weddings, anniversaries, personal success or even instances of sadness or bereavement. In short, sadaka can be given during any period of happiness or sadness or as a sign of gratitude to Allah Subhanu wa Ta'ala.
In a Hadeeth Narrated Ibn Masud:
I heard the Prophet (S.A.W.) saying, "There is no envy except in two: a person whom Allah has given wealth and he spends it in the right way, and a person whom Allah has given wisdom (i.e. religious knowledge) and he gives his decisions accordingly and teaches it to others."
In another Hadeeth:
The Prophet (S.A.W.) said: ‘'Charity is a necessity for every Muslim'. He was then asked: 'What if a person has nothing?' The Prophet replied: 'He should work with his own hands for his benefit and then give something out of such earnings in charity.' The Companions asked: 'What if he is not able to work?' The Prophet said: 'He should help poor and needy persons'. The Companions further asked 'What if he cannot do even that?' The Prophet said 'He should urge others to do good'. The Companions said 'What if he lacks that also?' The Prophet said 'He should check himself from doing evil. That is also charity'.
Sadaka in the form of Halal Meat is very similar to Qurbani, except that sadaka can e performed on any day and it is not specific to Eid Ul Adha, Sadaka is a sacrifice that can be performed for one’s self or on behalf of someone else who may be seeking the reward of this ‘Sunnah’ on many occasions people will give Sadaka for and on behalf of people who are ill, and distribute the meat to the poor and needy.
Aqiqah, in Islamic terminology, is defined as the animal that is slaughtered on the occasion of child birth. The performance of Aqiqah is highly encouraged. It is to be performed or arranged by the parents or the guardians of the child. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his companions used to perform Aqiqah when they were bestowed with a newborn.
When Should Aqiqah be Performed?
The best time to perform Aqiqah is on the seventh day after the birth of the baby; however it can be performed later.
What is the Purpose of Aqiqah?
There are many benefits in the performance of Aqiqah, the main is the announcing of the birth of a baby by a traditional method and ‘Sunnah’, inviting family members, neighbours, and friends to celebrate the blessed occasion. The poor should be included in the celebration by offering them food or the actual meat from this occasion.
Types of animals to be slaughtered
The following is a hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) where he advised Aqiqah a goat/sheep.
Narrated Umm Kurz: The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Two sheep which resemble each other are to be sacrificed for a boy and one for a girl.
(Sunan Abu Dawood Book 15, No. 2830)
The condition of the animal for Aqiqah
The condition of the animals in Aqiqah is the same as the conditions for the animals in Qurbani. The animals to be slaughtered must be a Goat, Sheep or Cow/Beef, for Goats or Sheep; they must be older than 2 years. They must be free from any form of handicap such as blindness, sickness, and disabled or undernourished. The animals must be slaughtered in the appropriate humane ways as Halal, and at the time of Slaughter the appropriate Ayah of the Quran is read as well as a Takbir and the name of the Child.
Pak Butchers will take care of all the necessary arrangement for the Aqiqah - please feel free to give our expert staff a call to discuss your requirements. We also offer the service of packing for distribution and we have several contacts within the community to distribute the meet to the ‘needy’ such as homeless people or people in prisons and care homes.